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  • Updated: May 13, 2023
  • 6 min read time
  • This page features 3 Cited Research Articles
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How to Cite's Article

APA Byerly, C. J. (2023, May 13). How Do Structured Settlements Work? Retrieved June 7, 2023, from

MLA Byerly, Catherine J. "How Do Structured Settlements Work?", 13 May 2023,

Chicago Byerly, Catherine J. "How Do Structured Settlements Work?" Last modified May 13, 2023.

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Key Takeaways

  • Structured settlements are the scheduled payments made to a plaintiff who settles a lawsuit or wins a judgment outright in court.
  • Instead of taking a lump sum of money, the plaintiff receives the amount over time.
  • Structured settlement payments do not count as taxable income even if they earn interest.
  • Once the terms of a structured settlement are agreed upon, there is little the plaintiff can do to alter payments.

Negotiating a Structured Settlement

The process of settling a civil case through a structured settlement involves the plaintiff, the defendant, a consultant experienced in such cases and a life insurance company. According to the National Structured Settlements Trade Association, the plaintiff is the person who has been wronged, the defendant is the person or company who caused the harm and the consultant is known as a qualified assignee.

Structured Settlement Agreement Process

  1. The plaintiff sues the defendant to seek compensation for an injury, illness or death the defendant caused. Often the defendant agrees to give money to the plaintiff through a structured settlement in order to keep the lawsuit from going to trial. If the case does go to trial and the judge rules in the plaintiff’s favor, the defendant may then be forced to set up a settlement.
  2. The defendant and the plaintiff work with a qualified assignee to determine the terms of the structured settlement agreement — that is, how much the regular payments should be, how long they should continue for, whether they should increase or be supplemented by larger payouts at certain times, and so on. The defendant provides money for the qualified assignee to buy an annuity for the plaintiff.
  3. The qualified assignee purchases an annuity from a life insurance company, setting up the annuity contract to match the settlement needs. Once the terms of the annuity are set, they cannot be changed. An immediate lump sum may also be set aside to cover attorney fees or to fund a specified trust.
  4. The life insurance company pays the plaintiff a series of payments over time, according to the terms of the annuity contract. The annuity earns interest to protect its value from inflation, and the only way for the plaintiff to get cash from the settlement ahead of schedule is to sell the right to future payments on the secondary market.

Calculating the structured settlement amount can be a complex financial task. A financial advisor or lawyer will typically hire an economist to help calculate the value of the contract.

negotiating a structured settlement

Structured Settlements Pros and Cons

Structured settlements offer a variety of benefits, not the least of which is the guarantee of future income. It’s important to weigh the pros and cons of accepting a structured settlement as they relate to your unique circumstances. Consider the tax implications and your need for liquidity.

Your goals for the money should inform your decision. If you need guidance, consult with your attorney and a trusted financial advisor.

Pros & Cons


  • Structured settlement payments do not count as income for tax purposes, even when the structured settlement earns interest over time.
  • Income from structured settlement payments also does not affect your eligibility for Medicaid, Social Security Disability benefits or other forms of aid.
  • In the event of the recipient’s premature death, the contract’s designated beneficiary can continue to receive any future guaranteed payments, tax-free.
  • Payments can be scheduled for almost any length of time and can begin immediately or be deferred for as many years as requested. They can include scheduled lump-sum payouts or benefit increases in anticipation of future expenses.
  • Spreading out payments over time can reduce the temptation to make large, extravagant purchases, and it guarantees future income. This is especially helpful if you have a medical condition that will require long-term care.
  • Unlike stocks, bonds and mutual funds, fluctuations in financial markets do not affect structured settlements.
  • The insurance company that issued the annuity guarantees payments. Even in the unlikely event that the insurance company becomes insolvent, your state’s insurance guaranty association still protects you from loss.
  • A structured settlement annuity contract often yields, in total, more than a lump-sum payout would because of the interest the annuity may earn over time.


  • Once the terms of a settlement are finalized, there’s little you can do to alter them if they do not meet your needs. You cannot renegotiate the terms if your financial situation or the overall economy changes.
  • Funds are not immediately accessible in case of an emergency, and you don’t have the opportunity to use the full amount of the settlement for investments that carry higher rates of return.
  • Some parts of a settlement, such as attorney’s fees and punitive damages, can be taxed.
  • Not all states require insurance companies to disclose their fees for establishing a structured settlement or lump-sum annuity. Without this information, you could lose a significant amount of money from your settlement through administrative fees.
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Understanding Structured Settlement Annuity Contracts

Structured settlement agreements are designed to provide periodic payments over a fixed number of years. However, the plaintiff can decide how the money is distributed and how much is provided yearly.

Structured settlement benefits can be delayed until retirement or distributed as an initial lump sum, with subsequent smaller payments over time in order to pay bills or relieve debt. Benefits can also act as an additional yearly income stream, with payments increasing or decreasing through the agreement term.

These types of settlements have become more common over the years because of the advantages they offer to individuals and their families.

Lawsuit Payout Options

Lawsuit Payout Options: Lump sum settlements come with the most freedom and the most risk. Structured settlements, on the other hand, are flexible to set up but rigid once established.

Government Support for Structured Settlements

Thanks to the Periodic Payment Settlement Act of 1982, many annuities issued as part of a structured settlement agreement, defined by the IRS as “qualified funding assets,” are exempt from income taxes.

Structured Settlements for Minors

Structured Settlements for Minors: Structured settlements are considered ideal for ensuring that an underage child’s cash settlement is preserved and spent appropriately.

Step 3

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Step 3

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Frequently Asked Questions About How Structured Settlements Work

What are structured settlements?

Structured settlements are tax-free payments issued to a claimant after litigation to settle a court case. The settlement is intended to pay for damages or injuries, providing financial security over time rather than one lump sum of cash.

Is a structured settlement considered income?

While a structured settlement is a stream of payments, the owner does not have to pay income taxes on the money received. The Periodic Payment Settlement Act of 1982 helped solidify this exemption for injured parties and their beneficiaries.

Can you sell your structured settlement payments?

Yes. You must follow several steps, including a court approval process, to receive your structured settlement payout. After obtaining the judge’s approval, you can sell all or a portion of your structured settlement payments.

What happens to your structured settlement if you die?

If you pass away before you receive all your structured settlement payments entitled to you, then your designated beneficiary will receive any remaining payments tax-free.


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Last Modified: May 13, 2023

3 Cited Research Articles writers adhere to strict sourcing guidelines and use only credible sources of information, including authoritative financial publications, academic organizations, peer-reviewed journals, highly regarded nonprofit organizations, government reports, court records and interviews with qualified experts. You can read more about our commitment to accuracy, fairness and transparency in our editorial guidelines.

  1. Wood, R. (2019, June 26). How Lawsuit Structured Settlements Work. Retrieved from
  2. National Structured Settlements Trade Association. (n.d). Glossary of Terms. Retrieved from
  3. National Structured Settlements Trade Association. (n.d). What are Structured Settlements? Retrieved from